NO: DELENG / 2017 / 70663
official media partner of national maritime foundation
By MURAT BAKAL | 13/07/2022

The 4th IMO Green House Gas (GHG) Study was initiated at the 74th term meeting of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC). The final version of the study report was published by IMO on 29 July 2020. Key Findings The international shipping industry is responsible for approximately 2% of the world's anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. For this reason, it is important to reduce emissions gradually.

This study shows that the international shipping industry is on track to meet the ambitious IMO target of reducing carbon intensity by at least 40% on average across the world fleet by 2030 compared to 2008. An improvement in CO2 emissions per kilometer of 1 ton of cargo transported, for example, a 30% reduction was recorded between 2008 and 2018.

The study shows that although there was a 40% increase in maritime trade in the same period, total greenhouse gas emissions in 2018 were almost 7% lower than in 2008 (international shipping emissions were approximately 5% lower). The study shows that the changes in the CO2 emissions of the shipping sector are independent of the growth in the maritime trade. However, the study's projections of future CO2 growth confirm that it will not be possible to meet the target of reducing total emissions by at least 50% by 2050 without the deployment of zero-carbon fuels and propulsion systems, regardless of commercial growth.

This highlights the importance of accelerating the development of zero-carbon technologies and the need for governments to support the industry's $5 billion international maritime R&D program proposal. Study Background The study was conducted by a consortium led by CE Delft company to develop estimates of past emissions from the international shipping sector and to predict future emissions; 1. The inventory of GHG emissions arising from international maritime activities between 2012-2018, 2.

The analysis of the carbon intensity of the international maritime sector from 2008 and 2012-2018, 3. Scenarios for international maritime emissions for the years 2018-2050 were created. The study report presents four metrics for carbon intensity: Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI, g CO2/t/nm), Annual Efficiency Ratio (AER, g CO2/dwt/nm), Kat CO2 Emissions Per Distance Taken (DIST, kg CO2/nm), TIME (t CO2/hr). The following substances are included in the emission inventory:

1. Six gases initially addressed under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

2. Other related substances: nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and sulfur oxides (SOx)

3. Cyan carbon (Black Carbon – BC). General Comments The study uses a different methodology compared to the previous study to calculate the proportion of total shipping emissions attributed to the international shipping sector (rather than domestic shipping), which is the subject of the greenhouse gas reduction targets set by the Initial Greenhouse Gas Strategy adopted in 2018.

The study uses voyage-based allocation, which defines international emissions as those occurring on a voyage between two ports in different countries, while the alternative “ship-based” allocation defines emissions by ship types, according to the Third GHG Study (2014). Using this new methodology, an inventory of international maritime greenhouse gas emissions for the years 2008-2012 has not been calculated. Much of the work focuses on developments between 2012 and 2018, rather than in 2018, compared to 2008, the base year set by the IMO for the targets agreed in the GHG Initial Strategy. In conclusion, the Study highlights how emissions have increased from 2012 to now rather than remaining significantly lower than in 2008. In other words, it draws attention to the empty part of the glass.

The new method of determining international emissions has become controversial, especially for some governments with long coastlines, as emissions from ships during international voyages between two ports of call, previously accepted internationally, are now covered by national GHG reduction commitments under the Paris Agreement. Although the effect of this new methodology is to reduce the estimates of total greenhouse gas emissions for which the international shipping industry is held responsible, some of the reduction percentages to be reflected in international shipping are now attributed to the "domestic shipping" sector. It is estimated that total emissions from the maritime sector in 2018 were approximately 7% lower than in 2008, while international emissions were less than 5%.

Notable Forecasts and Comments from the Fourth GHG Study Report Maritime Trade Growth The study estimates that total shipping trade doubled between 1999 and 2019. In addition, when trade is measured by transport services (ton-km), it is seen that maritime transport dominates, constituting 95% of the transport services provided. 2 Emissions Inventory It is recalled that the reduction targets set by the IMO Greenhouse Gas Strategy are based on international maritime emissions using the 2008 baseline. In this study, which separates domestic shipping from international emissions on a voyage basis, GHG emissions (measured in carbon dioxide equivalent, abbreviated as CO2e) in 2008 from international shipping activities; one metric ton is defined as the number of metric tons of CO2 emissions that have the same global warming potential as another greenhouse gas. tons (the corresponding value is 940 million tons of CO2e when the method in the Third IMO Greenhouse Gas Study is used.

Sea And Coast News